Saturday, August 13, 2022

Ethical principles, the foundation of ethical medical practice.

Refusal of Care


"A patient's right to the refusal of care is founded upon one of the basic ethical principles of medicine, autonomy. This principle states that every person has the right to make informed decisions about their healthcare and that healthcare professionals should not impose their own beliefs or decisions upon their patients.  Autonomy does not exist alone; there are other medical principles that help guide care.

Beneficence requires that actions taken by healthcare professionals be for the benefit of the patient.  

Non-maleficence is the principle that embodies "do no harm," requiring health care providers to take steps to ensure their patients and society at large are not harmed by their actions.  

Justice requires that the benefits and risks associated with healthcare should be distributed equally amongst the population without bias. Each principle has a role when navigating the difficult situations where patients or their family members may be refusing medical assistance."


WaffleStaffel said...

Kevin McKernan, co-author with Peter McCullough of "Differences in Vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 Replication Derived mRNA: Implications for Cell Biology and Future Disease," mentions how his hospital threatened the prospect of insurance payment being withheld if he left "AMA."

Anonymous said...

Except for Covid where ever you are good night

The nature of the biological agents handled at CL4 is such that careful consideration should be given to procedures for dealing with emergencies. There are several duties placed on employers for dealing with foreseeable accidents such as fire, flood and serious and imminent danger. For the purposes of work with high-hazard pathogens, an emergency can be defined as ‘any failure to contain the biological agent’ and any such incident should invoke specific emergency procedures as required
Legislation and key duties
Regulation 21Information relating to accidents
Plan of measures.
Review of plan.
Inform emergency services. Plan publicly available.
Inform Competent Authority immediately

3 A written emergency plan, based on a risk assessment, must be produced. It should be kept up to date with changes in practices or personnel.
6 For ‘major’ containment failures, it is essential to consult with local emergency services to determine the limits of local response team action and the timing level of external support for the control of a major incident, eg fire.
7 For high-hazard facilities, it is recommended that an incident response team be established to manage any accident involving loss of containment. This team would contain appropriately trained individuals or ‘competent persons’ who would have defined roles and responsibilities and be able to respond immediately to any accident and mitigate against effects. This team should include technical specialists, mechanical specialists, first-aiders and other nominated individuals with responsibility for evacuation, shutting down plant..
Safety exercises
11 Safety exercises will be particularly important for new ways of working where there will be limited experience in dealing with emergencies.

Inform interested parties
12 A nominated individual should be assigned to co-ordinate any emergency response and to liaise with the emergency services so that they can be fully informed of the nature of the hazards involved, once on site. Fire Service, for example, may need special decontamination to avoid transferring biological agents off site. The police may need to be informed
13 Other relevant authorities may need to be shown the emergency plan
14 Emergency plan attention of the Environment Agency England and Wales and the local water company, for consideration of water pollution. In some cases, the emergency plan must be made publicly available
15 Emergency procedures should be reviewed regularly to ensure that any personnel changes are reflected in the current plan. Should an incident occur and the plan be put into effect, the effectiveness of the response should be reviewed at an appropriate interval following the accident. Any suggested improvements should be incorporated into a new plan.
Exposure to high-hazard pathogens

High Risks Alert emergency team.

17 All incidents should be reported to the responsible person in charge of the facility and an assessment should be made and appropriate response given. For example,

19 Accidental needle-stick injuries with contaminated instruments or deep bites from infected animals carry a high risk of infection to workers. Any such incidents should be closely monitored. For all high-risk incidents, appropriate precautions should be taken...

Emergency contact numbers
20 Emergency contact numbers should be readily available for use when needed.
21 During emergencies, employers should make an immediate assessment of the situation and initiate the appropriate response. An emergency response plan should include communication to key facility staff including the senior safety advisor, medical advisor, senior engineering manager and senior facility managers.
22 A list of contacts and arrangements for obtaining further advice and assistance (meteorological information, specialist medical advice, water and agricultural authorities) should be readily available or posted at key information points within the building.