"Clinical specimens [such as blood or urine] from persons suspected of being infected with one of the agents listed in this summary (Ebola is listed as BSL-4 on page 251) should be submitted to a laboratory with a BSL-4 maximum containment facility." (on page 238) "The recommendations for viruses assigned to BSL-4 containment are based on documented cases of severe and frequently fatal naturally occurring human infections and aerosol-transmitted laboratory infections"From CDC regarding air travel and Ebola:
When providing direct care to a sick traveler who came from a country with an Ebola outbreak, also wear surgical mask (to protect from splashes or sprays), face shield or goggles, and protective apron or gown... Give a surgical mask if a sick traveler is coughing or sneezing, if the sick person can tolerate wearing one.From CDC regarding generation of aerosols in hospitals treating Ebola patients:
Aerosol Generating Procedures
Conduct the procedures in a private room and ideally in an Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) when feasible. Room doors should be kept closed during the procedure except when entering or leaving the room, and entry and exit should be minimized during and shortly after the procedure.From CDC regarding the need to use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that can protect against aerosol and airborne virus:
HCP should wear appropriate PPE during aerosol generating procedures.
Conduct environmental surface cleaning following procedures (see section below on environmental infection control).
...A PAPR with a full face shield, helmet, or headpiece. Any reusable helmet or headpiece must be covered with a single-use (disposable) hood that extends to the shoulders and fully covers the neckFrom WHO:
Theoretically, wet and bigger droplets from a heavily infected individual, who has respiratory symptoms caused by other conditions or who vomits violently, could transmit the virus – over a short distance – to another nearby person.From NIH's NIAID:
This could happen when virus-laden heavy droplets are directly propelled, by coughing or sneezing (which does not mean airborne transmission) onto the mucus membranes or skin with cuts or abrasions of another person.
BSL-4 agents "cause illness by spreading through the air (aerosol) or have an unknown cause [sic] of transmission"